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Obsessions are defined as content, intrusive, unwanted thoughts that couse distressing emotions such as anxiety or distress. People experiencing obsessions recognize that these persistent images are a product of their own mind and are excessive pr unreasonable. Yet these intrusive thoughts can not be settled by logic and reasoning. For example some people may constantly fear bringing harm or injuries to others or to themselves.
Sights and symptoms of obsessions...
1) Fear of being contimation Or dirt
2) fear of cousing harm
3) violent thoughts and images
4) excessive foucous on attractive things
5) fear of not having things that you might need
6) superstation or excessive attention to something
7) order and semetry ; They like things to in order and they believe that's right
Miller Fisher syndrome is caused by inflammation and demyelination of the axonal portion of peripheral nerves.
Peripheral nerves are located in the periphery of the body.
These nerves run through the limbs, face, and trunk, and they power voluntary and involuntary muscles of the body.
The axons of the peripheral nerves are long structures of the nerves that carry electrical signals through the length of the nerve.
Demyelination is a disease process that causes degeneration of the myelin sheath.
The demyelination that occurs in Miller Fisher syndrome is caused by inflammatory damage.
The trigger for inflammatory demyelination in Miller Fisher syndrome can be idiopathic
• Weak eye muscles, with double or blurred vision.
• Drooping eyelids with facial weakness
• Poor balance and coordination with sloppy or clumsy walking.
• Loss of deep tendon reflexes, such as the knee and ankle jerk.
Adaptations are changes in the way instruction and assessment are carried out to allow a learner equal opportunity to demonstrate mastery of concepts and achieve the desired learning outcomes.
• Evaluation system must have more objective
based question, fill in the blanks, short answers
type, one word answers, etc. For example, while
answering essay type questions, marks should be
given if answered in key points not on the length
of the answer.
• 60% of the questions in exams may be evaluated
based on oral response given by child.
• Language of question should be simple and easy
• Marks should not be cut for punctuation, spellings
and grammatical errors.
• Compensatory time of 20 minutes for each hour
should be provided as specified in point number
08 of these guidelines.
• Question paper may be explained by invigilator
for better understanding by children.
voice disorder occurs when voice quality, pitch, and loudness differ or are inappropriate for an individual’s age, gender, cultural background, or geographic location (Aronson & Bless, 2009; Boone et al., 2010; Lee et al., 2004). A voice disorder is present when an individual expresses concern about having an abnormal voice that does not meet daily needs—even if others do not perceive it as different
Organic—physiological voice disorders that result from alterations in respiratory, laryngeal, or vocal tract mechanisms.
Structural—organic voice disorders that result from physical changes in the vocal mechanism, such as
alterations in vocal fold tissues (e.g., edema or vocal nodules) and/or
structural changes in the larynx due to aging.
Neurogenic—organic voice disorders that result from problems with the central or peripheral nervous system innervation to the larynx that affect functioning of the vocal mechanism, such as
spasmodic dysphonia, or
vocal fold paralysis.
Functional—voice disorders that result from inefficient use of the vocal mechanism when the physical structure is normal, such as
muscle tension dysphonia or aphonia,
Attachment styles are our process of interacting with and connecting ourselves to the people who are the bulk important to us. These styles can influence our mood and behaviors in our closest relationships. Expressive and understanding your predominant attachment style can benefit you in various ways.
There are four types of attachment styles. They are:
1. Secure - healthy boundaries, Mutual trust and support
2. Anxious - fear of abandonment, need for constant validation.
3. Dismissive Avoidant - Avoids intimacy and vulnerability, commitment issues.
4. Fearful Avoidant - fear of rejection, low self esteem.
The posterior interosseous nerve is a branch derived from radial nerve, that comes by the posterior cord from the brachial plexus. And C5 to T1 are the nerve roots that supply this posterior interosseous nerve. This PIN supplies to the whole posterior forearm.
Basically the radial nerves deep branch slide into the posterior forearm through the heads of the supinator of forearm to emerge as the posterior interosseous nerve.
Posterior interosseous nerve syndrome is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseous nerve which innervates the extensor compartment of the forearm. It usually has an insidious onset, often presenting with weakness in finger and thumb extension.
PIN injury can be caused by many things like trauma,rheumatoid arthritis, brachial neuritis, and spontaneous compression.The most common site of compression is at the proximal edge of the supinator also known as “arcade of Frohse”
Posterior interosseous nerve syndrome has a sex ratio of 2:1 male to female.and also a ratio of right to left is here like 2:1
Depending on the severity of the injury it can cause muscle weakness. The prognosis ranging from a few days up to 12 weeks for recovery and setback is excellent.
The major evaluation tests include an electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction study (NCS).
Treatment of PIN syndrome mostly is a non-surgical management, so planned as follows splinting, NSAIDs,Physiotherapy, activity modification if any sports person related to occupation too. Surgical treatment is reserved for those refractory to conservative management for at least three months. Surgical decompression focuses on releasing areas of compression at arcade of Frohse.
Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability diagnosed in childhood that affects a person's handwriting ability and fine motor. It is characterized by poor writing skills that are significantly below for the child's age, intelligence, and education, and cause problems with child's academic success or other important areas of life.problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing and poor spatial.
• Avoiding written work.
• Illegible handwriting, incorrect use of upper and lower case letters, inverted characters.
• Basic written activities,such as taking notes,are challenging as they require simultaneous listening.
It refers to type of specific learning disability that affects a person's ability to understand numbers and learn math facts and difficulty in learning arithmetic.
Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehensive of math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty telling time,or have trouble with counting.problems with number or basic concepts are likely to show up early and problems related to reasoning appear in the later grades in students.
A child with inadequate arithmetic skills may just rely on rote memorization for the first 2 or 3 years of primary school
• poor comprehension of fraction concepts.
• counts with fingers because of difficulty with counting.
• individuals might have difficulty reading clocks to tell time, counting money, identifying patterns, remembering math facts, and solving mental math.
Dysphagia is difficulty swallowing taking more time and effort to move food or liquid from your mouth to your stomach. Dysphagia can be painful. In some cases, swallowing is impossible.
Occasional difficulty swallowing, such as when you eat too fast or don't chew your food well enough, usually isn't cause for concern. But persistent dysphagia can be a serious medical condition requiring treatment.
Swallowing is complex, involving many muscles and nerves. Any condition that weakens or damages the muscles and nerves used for swallowing or leads to a narrowing of the back of the throat or esophagus can cause dysphagia.
sophageal dysphagia refers to the sensation of food sticking or getting caught in the base of your throat or in your chest after you've started to swallow. Some of the causes of esophageal dysphagia include:
Achalasia. When the lower esophageal muscle (sphincter) doesn't relax properly to let food enter the stomach, it can cause food to come back up into the throat. Muscles in the wall of the esophagus might be weak as well, a condition that tends to worsen over time.
Diffuse spasm. This condition causes high-pressure, poorly coordinated contractions of the esophagus, usually after swallowing. Diffuse spasm affects the involuntary muscles in the walls of the lower esophagus.
Esophageal stricture. A narrowed esophagus (stricture) can trap large pieces of food. Tumors or scar tissue, often caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), can cause narrowing.
Esophageal tumors. Difficulty swallowing tends to get progressively worse when esophageal tumors are present due to narrowing of the esophagus.
Foreign bodies. Sometimes food or another object can partially block the throat or esophagus. Older adults with dentures and people who have difficulty chewing their food may be more likely to have a piece of food become lodged in the throat or esophagus.
Emotional development refers to a child's growing ability to regulate and control emotions to secure relationships. It influences child's self-confidence and make meaningful relations those are around him.
(Stages of emotional development)
Emotional development in humans can be explained based on their age growth.
(1) First three months infants see objects clearly with in a distance of 13 inches. Feel comfortable by someone familiar. The infant gets positive response to touch and starts listening to voices. He begins to smiling and responding to social stimulation.
(2) 3 to 6 months... From this time infents can start making warm smile and laughter. They recognize familiar people. Infents seek comfort and cry when they are uncomfortable. They express excitement by waving his/her arms and legs. They can be able to sense the difference between people based on how feel and sound like. They smile when looking at himself in a mirror. Starts laughing loudly and enjoys seeing other babies.
(3) 6 to 12 months... The child builds having separation anxiety and starts to develop self esteem.They try to gain your approval and avoid disapproval.
(4) 24 to 36 months... From this time the child copies other and learns by observing things. Shows concern for crying.
(5)36 to 48 months... The child enjoys new things and gets interested at particular things. They talk about their likes and interests. They more likely to agree with rules and like to sing , dance and act etc...
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