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prepared by Priyadharshini R
Treatment plan for childhood of APRAXIA OF SPEECH
Speech drills. Your child's speech-language therapist will focus on speech drills, such as asking your child to say words or phrases many times during a therapy session.
Sound and movement exercises. ...
Speaking practice. ...
Vowel practice. ...
Hearing tests. Your doctor may order hearing tests to determine if hearing problems could be contributing to your child's speech problems.
Oral-motor assessment. Your child's speech-language pathologist will examine your child's lips, tongue, jaw and palate for structural problems, such as tongue-tie or a cleft palate, or other problems, such as low muscle tone. Low muscle tone usually isn't associated with CAS, but it may be a sign of other conditions.
Your child's speech-language pathologist will observe how your child moves his or her lips, tongue and jaw in activities such as blowing, smiling and kissing.
Speech evaluation. Your child's ability to make sounds, words and sentences will be observed during play or other activities.
Your child may be asked to name pictures to see if he or she has difficulty making specific sounds or speaking certain words or syllables.
Your child's speech-language pathologist may evaluate your child's coordination and smoothness of movement in speech during speech tasks. To evaluate your child's coordination of movement in speech, your child may be asked to repeat syllables such as "pa-ta-ka" or say words such as "buttercup."
If your child can produce sentences, your child's speech-language pathologist will observe your child's melody and rhythm of speech, such as how he or she stresses syllables and words.
Your child's speech-language pathologist may help your child be more accurate by providing cues, such as saying the word or sound more slowly or providing touch cues to his or her face.
Polymorphous light eruption is a rash caused by sun exposure in people who have developed sensitivity to sunlight. The rash usually appears as tiny, inflamed bumps or slightly raised patches of skin.
Cause is unknown, exposure to the sun produces a rash
2.exogenous photodermatoses: are those which phototoxic or photoallergic reactions caused by an external photosensitiser
Caused by metabolic effect. Common disorder of this type
Symptoms of the rash in polymorphous light eruption may include:
Dense clusters of small bumps and blisters
Inflamed, raised rough patches
Itching or burning
People may rarely have other symptoms such as fever and chills.
In polymorphous light eruption, eruption refers to the rash, which usually appears 30 minutes to several hours after sun exposure. The rash usually appears on areas of the body that are covered during winter but exposed in summer such as the upper chest, front of the neck and arms.
The exact cause of polymorphous light eruption isn't understood. The rash appears in people who have developed sensitivity to sunlight, especially ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, such as tanning beds. This is called photosensitivity. It leads to immune system activity that causes a rash.
With polymorphous light eruption, sensitivity to sunlight lessens with repeated exposure.
Features of polymorphous light eruption are somewhat predictable:
An episode is most likely to occur after the first one or two times of sun exposure after a long period of no exposure, such as in spring or early summer.
Episodes are less likely to happen as the summer progresses.
After the first episode, it's likely to happen each year. Some people gradually become less sensitive over several years and eventually no longer experience the yearly rash.
Anyone can develop polymorphous light eruption, but several factors are associated with an increased risk of the condition:
Having skin that sunburns easily
Living in northern regions
Having a family history of the condition.
Prepared by Chandrashekhar, behaviour therapist.
What are sleep disorders?
Sleep disorders are conditions that impair your sleep or prevent you from getting restful sleep and, as a result, can cause daytime sleepiness and other symptoms. Everyone can experience problems with sleep from time to time. However, you might have a sleep disorder if:
You regularly experience difficulty sleeping.
You are often tired during the day even though you slept for at least seven hours the night before.
You have a reduced or impaired ability to perform regular daytime activities.
There are more than 100 million Americans of all ages who are not getting an adequate amount of sleep. Sleep is very important. Not getting enough sleep can have untoward consequences on school and work performance, interpersonal relationships, health and safety.
How many types of sleep disorders are there?
There are approximately 80 different types of sleep disorders. The top ones are:
Restless legs syndrome.
Sleep problems can be caused by various factors. Although causes might differ, the end result of all sleep disorders is that the body's natural cycle of slumber and daytime wakefulness is disrupted or exaggerated. Eight factors include:
Physical (such as ulcers).
Medical (such as asthma).
Psychiatric (such as depression and anxiety disorders).
Environmental (such as alcohol).
Working the night shift (this work schedule messes up “biological clocks.”)
Genetics (narcolepsy is genetic).
Medications (some interfere with sleep).
Aging (about half of all adults over the age of 65 have some sort of sleep disorder. It is not clear if it is a normal part of aging or a result of medicines that older people commonly use).
Children with ADHD can be highly intelligent and may have strengths in certain areas, such as creativity, problem-solving, and critical thinking. With the right support and accommodations, they can thrive in academic settings.
For example, a child with ADHD may benefit from:
An individualized education plan (IEP) or 504 plan that outlines specific accommodations or modifications to support their learning.
Medication prescribed by a doctor to help manage ADHD symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Structured routines and schedules to help them stay on track and manage time effectively.
Positive reinforcement and praise for good behavior and academic achievements.
Support from teachers, school psychologists, and counselors to help manage their symptoms and address any emotional or social challenges they may face.
It's important to remember that every child with ADHD is unique, and their needs and abilities may vary. With the right support and a positive learning environment, children with ADHD can achieve academic success and reach their full potential.
Prepared by Priyadharshini R
Signs and symptoms of childhood of APRAXIA OF SPEECH
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is an uncommon speech disorder in which a child has difficulty making accurate movements when speaking.
In CAS, the brain struggles to develop plans for speech movement. With this disorder, the speech muscles aren't weak, but they don't perform normally because the brain has difficulty directing or coordinating the movements.
Many children with CAS have difficulty getting their jaws, lips and tongues to the correct positions to make a sound, and they may have difficulty moving smoothly to the next sound.
Many children with CAS also have language problems, such as reduced vocabulary or difficulty with word order.
Some symptoms may be unique to children with CAS and can be helpful to diagnose the problem. However, some symptoms of CAS are also symptoms of other types of speech or language disorders. It's difficult to diagnose CAS if a child has only symptoms that are found both in CAS and in other types of speech or language disorders.
Some characteristics, sometimes called markers, help distinguish CAS from other types of speech disorders. Those particularly associated with CAS include:
Difficulty moving smoothly from one sound, syllable or word to another
Groping movements with the jaw, lips or tongue to make the correct movement for speech sounds
Vowel distortions, such as attempting to use the correct vowel, but saying it incorrectly
Using the wrong stress in a word, such as pronouncing "banana" as "BUH-nan-uh" instead of "buh-NAN-uh"
Using equal emphasis on all syllables, such as saying "BUH-NAN-UH"
Separation of syllables, such as putting a pause or gap between syllables
Inconsistency, such as making different errors when trying to say the same word a second time
Difficulty imitating simple words
Inconsistent voicing errors, such as saying "down" instead of "town"
Babbling less or making fewer vocal sounds than is typical between the ages of 7 to 12 months old
Speaking first words late (after ages 12 to 18 months old)
Using a limited number of consonants and vowels
Frequently leaving out (omitting) sounds
Using speech that is difficult to understand speech.
*Telangiectasia is also called as spider veins
*Telangiectasia is small, widened blood vessels on the skin, measuring between 0.5 to 1 mm in diameter
*They are usually harmless, but may be associated with several diseases.
*It may develop anywhere within the body,but they are most easily seen on the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eyes.
* Venous hypertension
*Sun and wind exposure
*Excessive alcohol consumption
*Telangiectasia due to disease
*Telangiectasia following injury
*Telangiectasia in skin tumour
*Telangiectasia related to topical steroid use
*There is no cure but treatable
* Laser therapy
*Intense pulsed light
Prepared by Vennela(special educator)
A learning disability known as non-verbal learning disorder (also known as NLD or NVLD) impacts a child's capacity to detect and decipher patterns in facial expression, body language, and other nonverbal forms of communication. Children with NLD are frequently too vocal, yet they struggle to understand social cues. In addition to having poor physical coordination, a kid with NLD may also have difficulty organising their ideas, making plans, and performing executive functions. The NLD is not accepted as a recognised diagnosis by the
a lack of capacity to interpret nonverbal social cues like expressions and body language.
Have trouble recognising and comprehending sarcasm
difficulty identifying others' feelings
Inability to comprehend visual information Inability to recognise spatial relationships and judge distance
Having poor motor coordination
Information prioritisation challenges Weak problem-solving abilities Difficulties with higher-level math concepts
Have trouble dividing a project into smaller components or determining
Prepared by Rajesh behaviour therapist.
*Panic attack risk factors and treatment*
A risk factor is something that raises your chances of getting a health problem.
You can have panic disorder with or without any of the risks listed below. But, the more you have, the greater your chances of getting it.
Panic disorder is nearly 2 times more common in women than in men. Women are also more likely to have it with agoraphobia.
It is most likely to appear in those 20 to 29 years old. But, it can start as early as the teen years or as late as 30 to 40 years old.
Other factors that make your chances higher:
It runs in your family—Having a close family member such as a parent, brother, or sister. Overprotection or lack of coping skills in your family may also play a role.
Stressful events such as:
Loss of a job
Marriage or first child
Prior victim of crime or abuse
Anxiousness—Taking something normal and worrying more than needed. The body reacts to this worry, making the risk of panic attacks higher.
Mental health illness—Mainly with other anxiety disorders or depression.
Problems with alcohol use disorder or substance use disorder. These can cause a fast heartbeat or lightheadedness, which can lead to feelings of panic.
Smoking—Risk is higher if smoking was done during the teen years or as a young adult.
Panic disorder is treated with medicines and counseling. In most cases, using both will give the best results. You will also learn how to control stress and how you react to it. This will lower the chances of having more panic attacks. Keep in mind it can take weeks to months to return to normal.
If you have other conditions such as depression or other anxiety disorders, they will need to be treated as well.
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